Reaching the UK government’s legally binding commitment of net zero carbon requires unprecedented change in society and industry. In its latest technical report, UK FIRES examines the process of industry-wide change and the sources of lock-in that inhibit change. We present a simple model for lock-in and apply it to case studies across multiple industries. By examining the organisation of production and the associated network of interactions, the model reveals the structural difficulties a firm or sector can face even when all stakeholders are willing to change. The report will be of value to industry leaders responsible for the process of change and seeking to pre-empt the various potential modes of failure.